Gaussian Curve (also known as the Gaussian Bell or Bell Curve) is a statistical curve very popular in probability theory. The normal (or Gaussian) distribution is a continuous probability distribution that has a bell-shaped probability density function, known as the Gaussian function or informally as the bell curve.
A possible approach is to use a Chart from Excel spreadsheet representing the values. Here you can learn more in the Official Office help How to create a Bell Curve chart or bell curve template.
You can use free online tools to plot functions, like fooplot.com or graph.tk. The second one offers a console where you can enter the math function and then take screenshots of the output. You can copy and paste the charge in PowerPoint.
However, in some other situations you just want to make a draft or simple curve to show. To draw a simple Gaussian Curve in PowerPoint you can get inspired from a Gaussian curve in Google. Just look for Gaussian Bell or Gaussian Curve diagram or chart in Google Images. Then copy the image and paste it temporarily in your slide.
Once you finished tracing the Gaussian curve, just remove the temporary image and modify the style for the curve. Here you can sea an example of Gaussian curve created after tracing a graphic in PowerPoint 2010.
Using this same approach you can plot other functions like the standard curve function or any other needed curve. Moreover, you can create box plot or curves in PowerPoint with the simple curve function.
Cyber resilience bell curve infographic showing basic security hygiene practices to implement to protect against 98% of attacks: Enable multifactor authentication, apply zero trust principles, use modern anti-malware, keep up to date, and protect data.
The bell-curve model helps management to very quickly identify the top performers, which will prompt reward benefits and recognition that can go a long way to retaining the best talent within the organisation.
Basically, the bell-curved performance appraisal is plain old fashioned. There are now better thought out, research based performance appraisal systems on offer that boost employee confidence, promote collaboration and support team efforts, rather than push individuals to compete with each other.
The CO2 response curve is a graphical depiction of the nearly linear relationship between PaCO2 and alveolar ventilation. Though the curve is nearly linear, at the extreme levels of PaCO2 (below 45 mmHg and above 80 mmHg), the linear relationship plateaus. Within the range of 45-80 mmHg for PaCO2, minute ventilation typically increases by 2-5L/min for every 1 mmHg of CO2 increase; though this may vary immensely between individuals. These ventilatory responses can be altered by transient or prolonged external insults including toxins and medications as well as physiologic conditions including age. One major cause of the shift of the CO2 response curve is caused by changes in oxygen saturations. In the setting of hypoxemia, or decreased oxygen levels, the curve shifts to the left, meaning that the alveolar ventilation or minute ventilation in these patients is the same at lower levels of PaCO2. The curve also shifts to the left with metabolic acidemia and central etiologies. Right shifts of the curve, or the same minute ventilation in response to higher levels of PaCO2, are caused by opioids. Benzodiazepines and propofol tend to decrease the slope of the CO2 response curve, and inhaled anesthetics decrease the slope and cause a right shift of the curve. Other changes to the curve can occur with increases in age, as age tends to decrease the ventilatory response to CO2 and an increased level of fitness also tends to decrease hypercapnic respiratory drive.
In the setting of clinical anesthesia, the carbon dioxide response curve is subject to drastic changes ranging from changes in threshold (left/right shifts) or sensitivity (slope amplification/depression) pending the agents utilized throughout the procedure, ventilation settings, and current health status of the patient, among others (see Figure). In the event of hypoxemia with PaO2 less than 60 mmHg, the CO2 response curve left-shifts, amplifying respiratory drive. Volatile anesthetics such as des/iso/sevoflurane cause a dose-dependent reduction in the slope of the carbon dioxide response curve, limiting the hypercapnic drive.
Commonly utilized analgesic medications such as opioids, specifically fentanyl, further dampen the CO2 response curve, causing a right shift (decreased threshold). Suspicions are that propofol and benzodiazepines suppress the carbon dioxide response curve by decreasing the slope (sensitivity). Unfortunately, most of the substances/gases utilized to achieve the depth of sedation necessary for proper amnesia and analgesia concomitantly dampen the carbon dioxide response curve, and thus respiratory drive. Under these influences, mechanical ventilation serves as a necessary intervention to artificially maintain a desirable physiological environment. By allowing medications to fall out of their therapeutic window, reversing neuromuscular blockade, and decreasing mechanical ventilation to allow permissive hypercapnia, the anesthesia provider may directly alter the patient's carbon dioxide response curve to increase respiratory drive at the end of the procedure with the intention of extubating the patient upon returning to spontaneous ventilation. In procedures like bronchoscopy, upper GI endoscopy, and colonoscopy, that utilize conscious sedation, pulse oximetry along with capnography is a necessity. Adequate oxygen saturation is easily maintainable by providing more FiO2, but if the patient is not maintaining proper alveolar ventilation, CO2 levels can rise to dangerous levels leading to bradycardia and potential cardiac arrest. Monitoring capnography throughout these procedures allows the anesthesia provider to observe the patient's ventilatory status and intervene if necessary. The alveolar gas equation can easily explain this concept.
The TI-89 can not only calculate z-scores and return values for normal distributions, it can graph the normal distribution curve as well. Graphing a normal distribution can help you see what it is you are supposed to be looking for, and gives you one more tool in solving normal distribution problems. The TI-89 can graph a normal distribution curve with an area shaded for any value. For example, you could create a graph that is: less than a certain number, greater than a certain number, or in-between a certain set of numbers.
Sample problem: Draw a normal distribution curve for student salaries during a typical semester. The student salaries have a mean of $6,800 and standard deviation of $2,500. Shade the area on the graph that corresponds to salaries between $7,300 and $9,000.
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PowerPoint Viewer is the name for a series of small free application programs to be used on computers without PowerPoint installed, to view, project, or print (but not create or edit) presentations.
The first version was introduced with PowerPoint 3.0 in 1992, to enable electronic presentations to be projected using conference-room computers and to be freely distributed; on Windows, it took advantage of the new feature of embedding TrueType fonts within PowerPoint presentation files to make such distribution easier. The same kind of viewer app was shipped with PowerPoint 3.0 for Macintosh, also in 1992.
As of May 2018[update], the last versions of PowerPoint Viewer for all platforms have been retired by Microsoft; they are no longer available for download and no longer receive security updates. The final PowerPoint Viewer for Windows (2010) and the final PowerPoint Viewer for Classic Mac OS (1998) are available only from archives. The recommended replacements for PowerPoint Viewer: "On Windows 10 PCs, download the free ... PowerPoint Mobile application from the Windows Store," and "On Windows 7 or Windows 8/8.1 PCs, upload the file to OneDrive and view it for free using ... PowerPoint Online."
A stable binary format (called a .ppt file, like all earlier binary formats) that was shared as the default in PowerPoint 97 through PowerPoint 2003 for Windows, and in PowerPoint 98 through PowerPoint 2004 for Mac (that is, in PowerPoint versions 8.0 through 11.0) was finally created. It was based on the Compound File Binary Format. The specification document is actively maintained and can be freely downloaded, because, although no longer the default, that binary format can be read and written by some later versions of PowerPoint, including the current PowerPoint 2016. After the stable binary format was adopted, versions of PowerPoint continued to be able to read and write differing file formats from earlier versions. But beginning with PowerPoint 2007 and PowerPoint 2008 for Mac (PowerPoint version 12.0), this was the only binary format available for saving; PowerPoint 2007 (version 12.0) no longer supported saving to binary file formats used earlier than PowerPoint 97 (version 8.0), ten years before.
The specification for the new format was published as an open standard, ECMA-376, through Ecma International Technical Committee 45 (TC45). The Ecma 376 standard was approved in December 2006, and was submitted for standardization through ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 34 WG4 in early 2007. The standardization process was contentious. It was approved as ISO/IEC 29500 in early 2008. Copies of the ISO/IEC standard specification are freely available, in two parts. These define two related standards known as "Transitional" and "Strict." The two standards were progressively adopted by PowerPoint: PowerPoint version 12.0 (2007, 2008 for Mac) could read and write Transitional format, but could neither read nor write Strict format. PowerPoint version 14.0 (2010, 2011 for Mac) could read and write Transitional, and also read but not write Strict. PowerPoint version 15.0 and later (beginning 2013, 2016 for Mac) can read and write both Transitional and Strict formats. The reason for the two variants was explained by Microsoft: 2b1af7f3a8